Various Types of Cell

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Types of Cell

On the basis of the organisation of the nucleus, cells can be divided into two types –
1. Prokaryotic cell.
2. Eukaryotic cell.

Now I shall discuss in details about this two types of cell -

a) Prokaryotic cell:

A prokaryotic cell does not contain any true nucleus. This is why it is called a cell with a primitive type of nucleus. The term nucleotide fits nice in this case. Nuclear materials in a prokaryotic cell are not surrounded by any nuclear membrane. They are dispersed in its cytoplasm. Though the cell organelles such as mitochondria, plastids, endoplasmic reticule etc. are not found in a prokaryotic cell, ribosomes are present in it. Only the unwrapped DNA constitutes the chromosomal structure of a prokaryotic cell. For example, blue, green algae and bacteria are constituted of this type of cell.


b) Eukaryotic cell:


In this type of cell, the nucleus is well structured that means nuclear materials are well organised and surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Chromosomes are organised with DNA, histone protein, and other components. From algae to higher flowering plants and from Amoeba to advanced animals, the basic structural and functional component is eukaryotic type of cell. Along with ribosome, other cell organelles are present in the cell.
On the basis of function, there are two other types of cells: somatic cell and gametic cell.


(1) Somatic cell:

This type of cell takes part in the organization of the body of an organism. The cell divides through the process of binary fission and mitotic division. Organisms grow in this way. Moreover, cells take part in the organization of different organs and organ systems.

(2) Gametic cell:

Gametal cells are produced in the organisms in which sexual reproduction and alternation of generations occur. Primordial germ cells divide through meiotic division and produce gametic cells. In a gametic cell, a number of chromosomes become half than that of its somatic type. A new living body is commenced after the fusion of male and female gametes. Half-life fuses with another half-life to produce a full life. The zygote is the first cell produced after the union of male and female gametic cells. The zygote undergoes repeated mitotic division to organize a body of an organism.

I conclusion, I hope that every learner will clear about what is cell and type of cell after reading this article.

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