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Top 20 Abused, Misused, And Mistreated Words

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Many words in the English language are used incorrectly. Every writer can benefit from a refresher that outlines some of these most commonly misused words.  If you are not always sure of when to use some of these words, you’re in good company.  Many intelligent and well-educated people continue to use these words incorrectly. So read and try to correct yourself. And if you have any question, ask me.

Top 20 Abused, Misused, And Mistreated Words


accept: to receive; to answer positively
except: not including; everything but

anxious: worried/nervous
eager: excited/looking forward to

affect: to pretend; to influence
effect: a result

assure: to make certain (such as with a person)
ensure: to make sure (such as with a thing)
insure: to provide or obtain insurance

beside: at the side of
besides: in addition to

between: two items that are related
among: three or more things related

choice: a decision or an option
choose: to make a decision
chose: past tense of choose

compliment: to praise
complement: something that completes

farther: literal or physical distance
further: to a greater extent

fewer: comparative with plural items
less: items that are singular

imply: to suggest
infer: to deduce

its: possessive form of it
it’s: contraction for it is or it has

lay: to place, which is always followed by an object
lie: to recline

**For present tense only. Tip: If you can replace the word in question with put, then use lay.

nauseated: not feeling well
nauseous: disgust

set vs. sit:
In general, set refers to an object (“Set the materials down on the table”) and sit does not (“She sat for an hour, waiting for the bus”).

that vs. which
–”Which” is frequently used to introduce a nonrestrictive clause, a phrase that isn’t necessary or supplies additional information and is usually set off by commas.
For example: The burned CD, which she received from a friend, wasn’t as great of quality as the original from a music store.

–”That” is used for introducing restrictive clauses that refer to things, phrases that ARE essential to the meaning of the rest of the sentence.
For example: The CD that consists of all of the band’s top-ten singles is her favorite.

that vs. who/whom
In most cases, “who/whom” is the standard form when referring to human beings, especially in regards to an individual person. “That” is used when referring back to a class, species, or type.

“Which” should never be used in reference to humans.

A correct example with “who”: She goes to the hairstylist who is the best.
A correct example with “that”: He is the type of hairstylist that should charge more because he is the best.

their: possessive form of they
there: in or at that place
they’re: contraction for they are

whose: possessive form of which, who
who’s: contraction for who is

your: possessive form of you; belonging to you
you’re: contraction for you are

While spell check quickly catches misspellings, misused words can easily slip past spell check and into your documents.  One way to identify words used out of context is by turning on your word processor’s grammar check feature.

However, though grammar check will identify a majority of misuses, it shouldn’t be your final proofreading expert.  Some misuses, particularly those that involve uses of ‘that vs. who/whom,’ can pass through grammar check but still need repair.

For important and published works, consider sending your documents to a professional proofreading service.  Even professional writers use proofreaders.  After staring at your document for hours on end, it’s easy to skim over sentences with missing words, typos, and words used out of context.  Professional proofreading services are affordable, fast, and ensure that readers always associate you and your company with top-notch quality work.

Author is a skilled and professional copywriter. For more information about proofreading your work, visit - WritersRelief

Some Famous Birthday Quotes

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Birthdays are times when we get so many good wishes and thank God for giving us all the good things that he had given us in the past years. People around us wish in many innovative ways and we also try to do the same to make the Birthday boy or girl feel special. There are many quotes by famous personalities who have described birthdays in their unique ways. So next time instead of saying or sending the same old “Many, many happy returns of the day”, try some of the following birthday quotes.

Birthday Quotes by Famous People


“And in the end, it’s not the years in your life that count. It’s the life in your years.”- Abraham Lincoln

“Born on Monday,Fair in face; Born on Tuesday,Full of God’s grace; Born on Wednesday, Sour and sad; Born on Thursday, Merry and glad; Born on Friday, Worthily given; Born on Saturday, Work hard for your living;
Born on Sunday, You will never know want.” – Anonymous

What could be more beautiful than a dear old lady growing wise with age? Every age can be enchanting, provided you live within it. – Brigitte Bardot

If you survive long enough, you’re revered – rather like an old building. – Katherine Hepburn

“Your birthday is a special time to celebrate the gift of ‘you’ to the world.” – Anonymous


“Believing hear, what you deserve to hear:
Your birthday as my own to me is dear…
But yours gives most; for mine did only lend
Me to the world; yours gave to me a friend.”- Martial

“Hope your Birthday gently breezes into your life all the choicest of things and all that your heart holds dear Have A Fun- Filled Day.” -Anonymous

“Maturity has more to do with what types of experiences you’ve had, and what you’ve learned from them, and less to do with how many birthdays you’ve celebrated.” – Anonymous

“Because time itself is like a spiral, something special happens on your birthday each year: The same energy that God invested in you at birth is present once again.” -Menachem Mendel Schneerson

“They say that age is all in your mind. The trick is keeping it from creeping down into your body.” -Author Unknown

“Once I was looking through the kitchen window at dusk and I saw an old woman looking in. Suddenly the light changed and I realized that the old woman was myself. you see, it all happens on the outside; inside one doesn’t change.” – Molly Keane

“Middle age occurs when you are too young to take up golf and too old to rush up to the net.” – Franklin Pierce Adams

“Thirty five is a very attractive age; London society is full of women who have of their own free choice remained thirty-five for years.” – Oscar Wilde

My mother groaned, my father wept, into the dangerous world I leapt; helpless, naked, piping loud, like a fiend hid in a cloud. – William Blake

“Have you not a moist eye, a dry hand, a yellow cheek, a white beard, a decreasing leg, an increasing belly? Is not your voice broken, your wind short, your chin double, your wit single, and every part about you blasted with antiquity?”-William Shakespeare

With mirth and laughter let old wrinkles come. -William Shakespeare To keep the heart unwrinkled, to be hopeful, kindly, cheerful, reverent that is to triumph over old age. -Thomas B. Aldrich

Hope you will like this quotes.

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My Cute Quotes

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There are several quotes out there the person can qualify as ‘my cute quotes‘ to give themselves something to give to others that they may always remember. The ones that look at cute quotes are going to find that there are many categories for which these quotes can fall into. For instance, there are going to be those quotes that are going to be about the love that they feel for a person that may be in the first stages or as a few individuals refer to it as puppy dog love, they may even find my lovable quotes are those quotes that are going to be in the funny category. As an example, those quotes that are talking about the animals that do something funny that's also cute at the same time.

These quotes make most folks get that grin on their face and follow that up with an ‘Aww ‘, in that lovable, high pitched voice. And most people like to read these cute quotes because they just do that. They enable folks to forget about their worries for a little while and basically enjoy the small things in life, which is what everybody should be doing at some points during their day.

When wanting to find quotes that you can say are ‘my cute quotes ‘ the individual needs to realise that they've a slue of selections when it comes to finding these quotes. Therefore , they need to ensure that they're looking at many different sources to find a amplitude of choices and know they are getting the best quotes for them. For example, they can look in books and mags, and they could find one or two quote that they like and feel comfy in calling their own. However , they're going to find that looking online is a great choice that they have. And why is this? Simply because they are going to find that there are many web sites that they can use in order to find far more quotes than they had before using alternative sources.

The key to narrowing the quantity of internet sites that the person has to look thru is to be sure that you only consider those sites that are ranked high. This suggests that these sites are going to be the ones that are going to offer the most quotes that people find acceptable for something they wish to call their own.

Those that need to start their own collection of cute quotes that they can call their own and pull these out whenever they need to make a chum smile are going to find that this is something that is going to be an ongoing process. Those that are collecting these are going to find that there are new quotes always turning up on the scene and they're always going to be hunting for the subsequent and best. Nevertheless many people find they get such joy out of these kinds of quotes and sharing them with others that it is worth using the time that they must invest so as to find these.

famous quotes are something the person can find comparatively simple if they look online at - My Cute Quotes  Here they'll find tons of cute quotes that they can read thru and discover just which ones appeal to them the most.

Cute Quotes

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Inspirational Quotes

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There are numerous uplifing quotes out there, but what makes the best inspirational quotes, the best? This is something that most people wish to know, particularly those that could be desiring to send these best inspirational quotes to some other person. They don't need to send something that is not as provoking as they were hoping for since this is an embarrassment for the sender. So what does the best inspirational quotes have in common? Knowing this may help the person make a miles better decision as to whether to share the quote or to simply keep it to themselves.


Inspirational Quotes


First off , the best inspirational quotes are going to be something that many people feel inspired by. As an example, if tons of folks are using this as the quote that they're living by, then the majority shows that the quote is one of the ones that are considered the best inspirational quotes that are out there. With this philosophy in mind , the individual can assume that if the quote is one that many folks are adding to their daily existance, sharing with others or just telling everybody that they know about it, then they can presume that this quote falls into the best uplifing quotes that are out there.



Nevertheless that is not the only thing that judges as to whether these quotes are something that are regarded as the best or not. A lot of whether someone thinks that these quotes are the best actually comes down to their personal taste and what they think to be entertaining and above everything else, inspiring. Those that are religious are quite likely going to find that they will come more certain to suggest a quote that's of the non secular aspects in terms of how it inspires,eg quotes from the Bible and so on. Nevertheless not everyone is going to agree with this.



There are those that are rather more systematic minded, and they are going to find that inspirational quotes that they consider the best are those that come from those in the systematic community and may be able to reach the person on a more scientific and factual strategy. Therefore , there really is no wrong and right when it comes to judging if a quote is the one of the best improvisational quotes out there. The individual simply has to go with their gut suspicion on this, or at least select these on the preferences of those who they're sending these quotes to.


Those that are searching for the best inspiring quotes are fortunate because there are tons of website that are going to try and appeal to those that are on the lookout for these varieties of quote. Folks should always remember that the quotes that they find should be free since there isn't any point in paying for something that you can get for free. And the person is going to find that if they want to diminish the time they spend on finding these quotes, then they should think about enrolling for a daily e-mail that's going to send these quotes to them through e-mail, which can save time and be a way to effectively send these to others that may need it.


The inspirational quotes are something that many folks are searching for since they are desiring the finest that they can find. At knowledgeworldbd.com

Get The inspirational quotes


the individual can find quotes that is inspiring that are going to considered some of the best by the ones that read these daily and these are those they are not going to be ashamed to share with others.


Have any question? Ask here Answers Mode.

The discoveries of Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein was the most distinguished scientist of 20th century. His discoveries pioneered a major change in the scientific world. Many people inaccurately assume that Albert Einstein got his Nobel Prize for his achievement on theory of special relativity. However he was indeed awarded Nobel Prize for his discovery of the law of photo electric effect.



For this discovery, Albert Einstein got physics nobel prize during 1921. Photo electric effect is a phenomenon due to which metals give out electrons from their surface when light falls on them. Though this phenomenon was recognized to some extent at that time, the cause and the process was not clearly understood. Albert Einstein did elaborate research on Photo Electric Effect and interpreted the phenomenon scientifically as below:

- Small particles called photons exist in the Light. These photons carry energy proportional to the frequency of light.

- When light strikes upon metals, some electrons get energy from the photons and their energy is increased. Due to this, these electrons acquire a different energy level compared to other elelctrons and so they get abandoned from the surface of the metal. This rejection of electron results in the flow of electrons or a generation of electricity.

At that time there were two theories developed about the nature of light, that light acts as a particle and light acts as a wave. There were observations and explanations approving both view points. Albert Einstein’s interpretation on photo electric effect helped the understanding of light as both as particle and wave.

Practical uses of photo elecric effect


The discovery of photo electric effct fundamentally means another means of creating electricity. So this discovery led to evolution of solar cells, using by which, solar light is converted into elctrical charge. Today solar cells are widely used every where starting from space applications to domestic appliances, Solar energy is now an significant source of alternate energy.

Another application of photo electric effect is found in photo diodes. The photo diodes have large presence in fiber optics and telecommunication in the area of light detection.

1905 and its importance

The year 1905 marked a very important year in physics as Albert Einstein came up with four major scientific publications during that year. It is to be noted that though he got Nobel prize in 1921, the publication about photo electric effect was done much earlier in 1905.

Albert Einstein’s four publications during 1905 are:


a) His explanation about Brownian motion
b) Einstein’s explantion of photo electric effect
c) The famous e=mc2
d) Special theory of Relativity

The above scientific publications in particular the special theory of relativity influenced the world of physics in a major way and changed the direction of thinking during the later years. The famous E=mC2 equation was the starting point for the development of nuclear weapons but also used beneficially as in generation of nuclear electricity. Either way, his works have made a large impact on the scientific world as well as the general society.

Most likely no other year witnessed so many important major scientific publications that too by just one person. Recognizing the importance of 1905 as an distinguished leap in Physics, the centenary year 2005 was declared as world year of physics.

Albert Einstein’s other discoveries


During the later years, Albert Einstein published the ‘general theory of relativity’ and worked on his unified field theory both of which are much more advanced than his earlier discoveries. Infact when his theories were first publilshed, many of them were against the scientific theories at that time and many scientists did not approve him. But gradually in various experiments by other scientists, the accuracy of Albert Einstein’s calculations was clearly validated.

For example, when the general theory of relativity was first published in 1915, many opposed it. The concepts and the calculations were not understood and approved by fellow scientists. Albert Einstein suggested that his calculations about planetary movements can be verified during the solar eclipses subsequently. Only years later, during an eclipse, various observations were recorded proving the correctness of Albert Einstein’s theory.

Though Einstein’s theory was used in the development of nuclear bomb, Einstein did not endorse or advocate the development. He was against war and continued on his committment to use technology for peace until his death in 1955. His discoveries will stand against time echoing the brilliance and hardwork of a great scientist and human being.

Ask your questions here if you have. 

About Reproduction

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Reproduction is one of the characteristics of an organism. Organisms give rise to other organisms of the same kind in life time and then continues its generation. The process of reproduction may be of various types. Diversified reproductive processes are being observed. I shall try to discuss all reproduction of Human and flower reproduction here.

What is Reproduction? 

Reproduction is a biology process by which new organisms are generated. So it means that Reproduction is the process of producing babies or young animals and plants. It is the mechanism of species continuation.
The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types:

1. Asexual Reproduction Process
2. Sexual Reproduction Process

1. Asexual Reproduction Process

In this system, an individual can reproduce without involvement with another individual of that species. The division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells is an example of asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is not, however, limited to single-celled organisms. Asexual reproduction needs only one parent, unlike sexual reproduction, which needs two parents.


Since there is only one parent, there is no fusion of gametes and no mixing of genetic information. As a result, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent and to each other. They are clones. Asexual reproduction happens in lower animals. Asexual reproduction occurs in different ways.
Such as – budding, binary fission, fragmentation etc.

2. Sexual Reproduction Process

 

The process through which two animals of opposite sex (male and female) compete for their reproduction by means of producing male and female gametes, fertilizes and produce offspring is called reproduction. The process of sexual reproduction involves two parents. Both parents normally contribute one gamete or sex cell to the process. This process assures that the genetic information given to the offspring will be obtained equally from each parent. The female gamete is called the egg or the ovum and the male gamete is called a sperm. These gametes are formed in specialised reproductive structures called gonads.

 

Fertilization :

Fertilization is necessary for sexual reproduction. It is a universal biological process. Sexual reproduction takes place by producing dissimilar gamete that is male. Fertilization occurs by the fusion of that is called fertilization. During sexual reproduction active sperm penetrates into the ovum and the two nucleus fuse together. The is cell is formed by the fusion of nucleus is zygote. It requires sometime for fertilization. Each of the sperm and ovum contains haploid number of chromosome it signifies it carries (one set of chromosome). Due to fertilization zygote is produced, Zygote is a diploid new cell that means it carries two set chromosomes. Maturity of sperm and ovum is the precondition of fertilization. Fertilization is a particular process. It happens only with the matured / full grown sperm and ovum of some species. Generally fertilization is unchangeable. Once an ovum is fertilised it will not fertilize again. On the basis of the place of occurrence, fertilization is divided into two types.


Each of the sperm and ovum contains haploid number of chromosome it signifies it carries (one set of chromosome). Due to fertilization zygote is produced, Zygote is a diploid new cell that means it carries two set chromosomes. Maturity of sperm and ovum is the precondition of fertilization. Fertilization is a particular process. It happens only with the matured / full grown sperm and ovum of some species. Generally fertilization is unchangeable. Once an ovum is fertilised it will not fertilize again. On the basis of the place of occurrence, fertilization is divided into two types.

1. External reproduction
2. Internal reproduction.

 

1 External reproduction:

If the fertilization takes place outside the body of male and female animals, generally in water is known as external reproduction, example in fishes. But exception are there, such as sharks and different fishes.

2. Internal reproduction :

The fertilization which takes place inside the reproductive organ of the female is called internal reproduction. This fertilization occurs introducing sperms of the male into the female reproductive organ. It is one of the characteristics in most of the terrestrial animals.
 

Some basic significance of fertilization:


 

Restoration of diploid chromosomes within the embryo accumulates heriditory characters of both male and female, makes the ovum active for its development. Chromsomes carry the characteristics of both father and mother. These characteristics combine, determine the sex of the embryo. Block picture shows the stapes of gamete formation is give below. For the continuity and restoration of hereditary, reproduction is essential. This process includes formation of embryo and gives birth to offspring. Man is unisexual, so that male and female reproductive organs are present in different individuals.

Concept of reproduction in organisms and its significance


 

Death is inevitable for life if it is born. If only death would have been occurred, once organisms would be extinct. But actually, is not happening because in one hand organisms are dying on the other hand organisms are also reproducing. Reproduction is such a physiological activity through which organisms continue the existence of their offspring by producing their replicas. The process through which organisms produce their offspring is called reproduction.


Reproduction is of two types, such as, asexual and sexual. Generally, in lower organisms, sexual reproduction does not occur but some lower organisms reproduce sexually. Most of the higher plants and all higher animals produce their offspring through sexual reproduction.

In sexual reproduction, two reproductive cells of opposite characters are fused. In this case, one is called male



reproductive cell and the other is called female reproductive cell or egg. Two types of reproductive cells can be produced in the same flower or in the same body. In higher plants, there are two types of reproductive cells produced in the same bodies. They are monoecious plants. When two types of reproductive cells are produced in separate bodies, these plants are called dioecious plants. The precondition of developing of any reproductive cell is that germinal mother cell will have to divide through meiosis.
As a result, the number of chromosomes in a reproductive cell becomes half than that of the mother cell. Later, zygote being divided repeatedly through the process stages of mitosis five stages of mitosis and its significance develops the new body of the newly born organism. In this way, an organism gives birth of many organisms. An organism this way also maintains the flow of its future generations.


If reproduction would not occur in organisms, they would be extinct. From a virus or bacterium up to human beings, all organisms maintain the existence of their species by reproducing their new generations. Which way an organism will accomplish its reproduction depends on the characteristics of the organisms. This is why when a lower organism does its reproduction through cell division then an organism of higher level accomplishes its reproduction through the complex process of sexual reproduction.

Stages of mitosis , Five Stages of mitosis Significance

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Stages of mitosis, Five Stages of mitosis Significance
Stages of mitosis:
Here I shall discuess about the Stages of mitosis, Five Stages of mitosis Significance.  The cell division mitosis is a continuous process. During mitosis, karyokinesis is usually followed by cytokinesis. Karyokinesis and cytokinesis represent the division of nucleus and the division of cytoplasm respectively. Before the starting of the cell division, a cell has to prepare itself. This stage is called interpahse. For the ease of description, the process mitosis can be divided into five stages.

Kinds of Stages of mitosis:


(1) Pro-phase
(2) Prometaphase
(3) Metaphase
(4) Anaphase
(5) Telophase
Now lets we see the details:

(a) Prophase:

This is the first stage of mitosis. At the onset of the stage, nucleus becomes little larger and chromatin fibers start condensing into short, thick and tightly coiled structures called chromosomes. At this stage, chromosome can be seen under compound microscope. Though every chromosome then divides into two sister chromatids, at the centromere each one remains together. As the chromosomes are still in a mess from, it is little tough to count the number of chromosome easily in a cell.

(b) Prometaphase:


At the very early of the stage, spindle apparatus having two poles is developed in plant cells from fiber protein. The middle plane of the spindle apparatus is called equator. Spindle fibers are stretched from one pole to the other. They are called spindle fibers. At this stage kinetochores in centromeres of chromosomes get
attached with some fibers of spindle apparatus.

Kinetochores are protein structures assembled on centromeres and link the chromosomes with mitotic spindles. These fibers are generally called traction fibers. They are also called chromosomal fiber as chromosomes are attached with them. Chromosomes then start assembling on the equatorial plane. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus being disintegrated begin to disappear. In animal cells spindle apparatus is developed from centrioles, and the centrioles remain in two poles with astral rays spreading round from them.

(c) Metaphase:


At the onset of the stage, all the chromosomes complete their assembling at the equator, middle plane from the two poles. The centromere of each chromosome remains on the equator but the two arms take position towards the poles. In this stage, chromosomes look most short and thick. Attraction between chromatids decline and repulsion increases. At the late of the stage, division of centromere starts. Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disappear completely
The significance of mitosis in the living body of organisms is immense. The balance in between the nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell in terms of volume and amount is maintained by the process of cell division mitosis. Through mitosis, the growth in the body multicellular organisms occurs. All the multicellular organisms start their life from a single cell zygote. The repeated division of this single cell produces innumerable cells and thus an organism grows to its complete level. As the number and feature of chromosome remain unchanged in the cells produced through mitosis, growth in organisms takes place systematically. Mitosis plays a role in

Mitosis plays a role in the maintenance of normal size, shape and volume of cells. Unicellular organisms reproduce through mitosis. Mitosis plays an important role in the vegetative reproduction of organisms and increasing the number of reproductive cells. Mitosis is essential in the body of living organisms to form new cells continuously for growth and healing of injuries. The life span of some cells is specific and they are, accordingly, replaced through the process of mitosis. As identical cells are produced through mitosis, qualitative features in the living world remain unchanged. Mitotic errors may result in abnormal mass of cells called tumours, with or without cancer cells.
The question is why meiosis occurs. In process mitosis, the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells remains the same as that of their mother cell. Mitosis is essential for the growth and asexual reproduction of organisms.

In sexual reproduction, the union of male and female gametes is required. If the number of chromosomes in the reproductive cells would be the same as the vegetative cells, the zygote would contain twice number of chromosomes than that of the vegetative cell. Supposing the number of chromosomes in a vegetative and a reproductive cell of an organism is 4. In zygote the number of chromosome would be 8, and so the new organisms will have the body cells with chromosome number 8 and that is twice that of its mother organism. If every life cycle of an organism continues that way, the number of

If every life cycle of an organism continues that way, the number of chromosome would be doubled again and again. In the second chapter, we have learn that chromosomes bear the genes controlling the features of organisms. If the number of chromosome is increased life cycle after life cycle, the offspring will be basically different.
In sexual reproduction, even through the union of male and female gametes, the number of chromosomes remains the same generation after generation as the number of chromosomes becomes half in the reproductive cells than that of the mother cell. When at the time of the development of reproductive cells and in any stage of the life cycle of plants in lower groups, the process meiosis occurs, then the feature of possessing half number of chromosome is called haploid. When the haploid cells are fused, the state of

When the haploid cells are fused, the state of cell having two sets of chromosome is called diploid. As the meiosis cell division occurs, the features in the species of living organisms keep on the same more or less, generation after generation. Meiosis mainly occurs in the primordial germinal cells during the development of gametes. In the anthers and ovules of flowering plants, and in the testes and ovaries of animals meiosis occurs. During the development of pollens from diploid pollen mother cells in mosses and ferns, meiosis occurs in their zygotes.
Two consecutive divisions occur with a cell in the process meiosis. The first and the second division are called meiosis-1 and meiosis-II respectively. In the first division meiosis I, the number of chromosome in a daughter cell becomes half than that of its mother cell, and the second division is simply a mitosis. Because of meiosis, the chromosome number in organisms remains constant.
So generation after generation, the number of chromosomes remains the same in the cells of the body of offspring. Besides, genetic diversity is also found in species of organisms as the exchange of genes occurs during meiosis.
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Cell Division and Types of Cell Division

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Different types of cell division occur in all the types of the organism from unicellular to multi-cellular. Because of a kind of cell division, bodily size of organisms increases and in other type of cell division, reproductive cells are developed and in some other cases organisms multiplies through binary fission. In this chapter, you will know how the different types of cell division occur.


 



Every living body is a cell or cells. Life of every organism starts with a single cell. In fact, every cell is originated from a pre-existing one. The increase of cells in number through division is a very natural and important feature. The body of some organism is composed of a single cell. They are called unicellular organisms, such as bacteria, amoebas, plasmodium etc. These organisms multiply themselves from the division of a single cell. Other organisms are composed of more than one cell.

They are called multicellular organisms. Humans, Mango and Banyan trees etc. are composed of crores of cells. A giant Banyan tree also initiates its structure after the formation of a single cell (zygote by the union of two gametes). After the fertilization of an egg, the structure of a man is accomplish with the crores of cells dividing through the process of cell division. Again, male and female gametes are produced for the emergence of new generations. Cells divide through the process of cell division for the growth and reproduction of organisms

Kinds of cell division:

Three types of cell division take place in living body, such as,
1. Amitosis,
2. Mitosis
3. stages of mitosis five stages of mitosis and its significance

1. Amitosis:


In this division, the nucleus of a cell divides directly into two parts. At the beginning of division, the nucleus elongates with two larger rounded ends and little narrower middle part. The middle part of the nucleus narrowing continuously once splits into two daughter nuclei. By this time cell wall of the cell pinching inward divides the cytoplasm of it into two parts and, ultimately, two daughter cells are produced. This type of cell division is found in bacteria, blue-green algae, yeast etc.

2. Mitosis:


Through this process of cell division, an eukaryotic cell, stage by stage, divides into two identical daughter cells. In this process, nucleus and chromosomes are divided only once and two identical daughter cells are produced with the same type of chromosomes in number, physical and structural features as their mother cell contains.
Mitosis occurs in somatic cells and through this division, as the number of cells increases, the plants and animals grow in length and breadth. The process usually takes place in the body cells of animals and in the meristems of the plant parts growing, such as the tip of stems and roots, plumule and radicle, developing leaves, buds etc.

Stages of mitosis:

The cell division mitosis is a continuous process. During mitosis, karyokinesis is usually followed by cytokinesis. Karyokinesis and cytokinesis represent the division of nucleus and the division of cytoplasm respectively. Before the starting of the cell division, a cell has to prepare itself. This stage is called interpahse. For the ease of description, the process mitosis can be divided into five stages.

4. stages of mitosis five stages of mitosis and its significance

Concept of Biology

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Before reading Concept of Biology, you must know about biology, the branches of Biology and the classification system of Biology. If you know about biology and interested to know the  Concept of Biology, then read this article.

Concept of Biology




In nature, we generally find two types of objects, nonliving things and living organisms. The characteristics of nonliving things are usually discussed in Physics and Chemistry. Biology is a branch of scientific knowledge concerning life and characteristics of organisms. It is one of the oldest branches of natural science. Its background was even created before the origin of life on the earth, and you will learn more about it at your higher classes.


By studying biology, one can acquire interesting knowledge of different plants and animals and human life. In the realm of living creation, the presence of life in a living cell is remarkable. This is why a good command of biology plays an important role in knowing more about the different parts and organ structure of organisms, different chemical activities in them, their adaptation to their environment, their intake of nutrition and reproduction.
The roles of a cell or cells in all steps of life are indisputable. Science has a great contribution in our everyday activities and developing our experience. For our living survival, the fundamental base of biology is inherent in the components of our environment. At the time of walking, our muscles conduct our legs, our nerves move our muscles and the blood circulation in our muscles provides them with oxygen, nutrition and strength.
A single-celled organism also survives, in the same way, using oxygen, nutrition and energy. For the maintenance of biological existence, all living organisms require oxygen and energy. An animal derives this energy from food produced by plants themselves and other sources.
Biology is one of the fundamental branches of science. The term biology is derived from the Greek word, bios, "life" and the suffix -, -logia, "study of." Greek philosopher Aristotle (384BC – 322BC) is called the father of biology. As Biology is the branch of science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, reproduction, classification, origin and evolution.
The biological species concept defines a species as members of populations that actually or potentially interbreed in nature, not according to the similarity of appearance. Although appearance is helpful in identifying species, it does not define species. To get more idea about biology, read Classification system of biology.

Branches of Biology

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In the previous lesson, I have discussed on biology if you didn't read yet then click here to read - what is biology. Now I shall discuss Branches of Biology which is very important for you. For this, I will say you to read this article attentively. Concept of Biology is another important lesson for you, you can read it.

Based on the type of organism, Biology is divided into two branches
1. Botany.
2. Zoology.

Grounded on the aspect of consideration, there are also two other divisions of biology - as-
1. physical biology.
2. applied biology.

Physical Biology: In the field of physical biology, theoretical concepts are usually discussed. The following subjects are the general fields of its concern.


1. Morphology: The field deals with the form and structure of organisms. It is usually divided into two branches – external and internal morphology. The external description of the body is called external morphology and the internal description of the body is called internal morphology.
2. Taxonomy: Classification of organisms and the principles related to this task are discussed in the field.
3. Physiology: This branch of biology deals with the biochemical activities of different organs of organisms. Besides, detailed description of all the physiological process of organisms is found in it.
4. Histology: The microscopic structure, arrangement and function of plant and animal tissues are studied in this subject.
5. Embryology: The branch of biology discusses the development of embryo of organisms.
6. Cytology: The structure, function and division of an individual cell in a body of organisms are studied in this field of biology.
7. Genetics: The branch of biology deals with genes and heredity.
8. Evolution: The gradual development of life and organisms over successive generations on earth is studied in this subject.
9. Ecology: It is the science of reciprocal relationship between organisms and their environment.
10. Endocrinology: The field of science deals with the study of endocrine glands and hormones secreted by them in a body of organisms.
11. Biogeography: The branch of biology studies the geographical distribution of organisms, past and present, throughout the landscape of planet earth including the knowledge of classifying bio-geographical patterns.
Applied Biology:
Applied subjects related to life are included in this category, and some of them are mentioned below:
1. Palaeontology: Science of the prehistoric life forms and fossils;
2. Biostatistics: Science of statistics of organisms;
3. Parasitology: Science related to parasitism, life process of parasitic organisms and diseases caused by them;
4. Fisheries: Science dealing with fish, harvesting of fish, management and conservation of fish assets;
5. Entomology: Science related to the study of life, merit, demerit, and control of insects including the losses caused by them;
6. Microbiology: Science related to virus, bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms;
7. Agriculture: Science concerning agriculture;
8. Medical Science: Science related to human life, disease, treatment etc.;
9. Genetic Engineering: Science associated with gene technology and its utilities;
10. Biochemistry: Science connected to biochemical process and diseases of organisms;
11. Soil science: Science related to soil, soil structure and soil environment;
12. Environmental Science: Science related to environment;
13. Oceanography: Science related to ocean and its resources;
14. Forestry: Science related to forest, management and conservation of its resources;
15. Biotechnology: Science associated with the technology of utilising of organisms for the benefit of mankind;
16. Pharmacy: Science dealing with technology and industry of medicine;
17. Wildlife: Science related to wild animals;
18. Bioinformatics: Biological information based on computer technology, information on the analysis of cancer, for example.

Hope you have got the clear idea on the Branches of Biology. If you find this is helpful for you then share this lesson on facebook, twitter, and google plus.
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Classification System of Biology

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Classification System of Biology To know the Biology classificatio System is very important for every science student for better understanding the subject. About four million of different plant species and thirteen million of animal species have been named and described till today. The number is not yet final because the description of more and more new species is being added to it almost every day.

Classification System of Biology


It is assumed that the number will reach a crore in future when the description of all the organisms will be ended. A large number of organisms are needed to be grouped systematically for the convenience to know, understand and learn them. Many years back natural scientists felt the necessity to classify living world following a natural system. From this very necessity, a distinct branch of biology, taxonomy had emerged.
The aim of classification is only one to know the vast and diverse living world accurately and classify them with little effort in a short period of time. The contribution of Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) in the field of taxonomy is more worth mentioning. In 1735 at the age of 28, he took his doctoral degree in medicine at the University of Harderwijk, and in 1741 he was appointed Professor of Medicine at Uppsala University.

Though he was first responsible for medicine-related matters, soon he changed his position with the other Professor of Medicine to become responsible for the Botanical Garden, botany and natural history instead. He thoroughly reconstructed and expanded the Botanical Garden. It was the main field of his intense interest to classify organisms from his botanical and zoological observations that he assembled from his many expeditions.
He classified living world into two kingdoms – Plant and Animal. In 1953 Linnaeus published his book Species Plantarum which is internationally accepted as the starting point of modern botanical nomenclature and in 1958 he released the tenth edition of his book Systema Naturae which established itself as the starting point for zoological nomenclature. He first defined the term genus and species in his book. Based on the observations of size, structure and characteristic, plants and animals are named. On the basis of each other’s similarity and dissimilarity, grouping organisms is called classification.

Aim of Biology Classification System

The aim of classification is to acquire knowledge of every group and subgroup of each organism. To document the accumulated information systematically focusing on the diversity of living organisms, introduce the total knowledge concisely and take proper steps after identifying organisms to conserve them or increase the number of species for the well-being of human beings and the living world are the objectives of classification.
Q: Why classify?
A: Because, it helps to understand things under the complexity of biological diversity One and half million types of organism have been discovered on this planet and it has been estimated that there may be 10-100 million kinds of organisms.
Q: How Classification Began?
A: Classification began By ancient people that observed nature and had a desire to organize the knowledge gained. Classification- the grouping of objects based on similarities ex:: baseball cards, coins, shoes, etc Ancient Chinese classification of dogs Stray Dogs Those have broken flower vase Resemble flies at a distance.

See more at: Branches of Science 

About Biotechnology (General Idea)

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Here I will discuss a short description about biotechnology. Actually, Biotechnology is an applied branch of biology. It has opened new horizons in solving many real problems in different branches of science. To improve human health care, to develop advanced type or crops, to increase the quality and amount of crops, to protect the environment, this technology has opened up doors of immense potentials. In this chapter, we will try to know the facts about this technology briefly.

What is Biotechnology?




The word biotechnology is derived from two words biology and technology. The word biology means special knowledge about organisms and technology means a manner of accomplishing a task specially using technical processes, methods or knowledge. The interrelation between biology and technology is biotechnology. In 1919 Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky first coined the word biotechnology. Through the application of this technology, from a cell of an organism, microorganism or a part of it, any new organism (plant or animal) with new characters is developed or any processed or by-product substance is produced from this organism.

In 1919 Hungarian engineer Karl Ereky first coined the word biotechnology. Through the application of this technology, from a cell of an organism, microorganism or a part of it, any new organism (plant or animal) with new characters is developed or any processed or by-product substance is produced from this organism.

In the advancement of science, biotechnology is not only a new addition. From the dawn of human civilization, man started to apply biotechnology. Man acquired the knowledge of fermentation and brewing about 8000 years ago. In nineteenth century after the discovery of Gregor Johan Mendel’s laws of heredity in the field of genetics, biotechnology started its new advancement. With the continuity of the invention of double helix model of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953, today’s biotechnology has emerged.

Now a days, tissue culture and genetic engineering from many methods of biotechnology are being used in multidimensional aspects in agriculture and other fields. In order to live well in a healthy and beautiful environment in the present world by ignoring the huge pressure of increasing population, there is no alternative to biotechnology. So the use of biotechnology in every field of life is widespread and massive. By using this technology amount of protein has been increased a lot more than the past. By eating super rice, which is recently invented in this process and rich in iron and beta carotene, we can meet up the want of Vitamin A and iron. Through tissue culture the species of potato, tobacco and banana resistant to virus have been invented. Through biotechnology salinity tolerant and drought resistant species of plants have been invented. Microbes such as bacteria, blue green algae and fungus are being used in producing compost.

By using this technology amount of protein has been increased a lot more than the past. By eating super rice, which is recently invented in this process and rich in iron and beta carotene, we can meet up the want of Vitamin A and iron. Through tissue culture the species of potato, tobacco and banana resistant to virus have been invented. Through biotechnology salinity tolerant and drought resistant species of plants have been invented. Microbes such as bacteria, blue green algae and fungus are being used in producing compost.

By eating super rice, which is recently invented in this process and rich in iron and beta carotene, we can meet up the want of Vitamin A and iron. Through tissue culture the species of potato, tobacco and banana resistant to virus have been invented. Through biotechnology salinity tolerant and drought resistant species of plants have been invented. Microbes such as bacteria, blue green algae and fungus are being used in producing compost.

In order to protect crops from the attack of pests, insecticides bacteria, virus and weeds, microbes and biological agents are being used instead of chemicals and pesticides. An eon making invention is the insulin made by adding human insulin gene to bacteria plasmid and entering them into e-coli bacteria. Interferon is a very precious protein compound which is produced in a very little amount in human body. But this protein is produced so little in human body that it cannot prevent cancer.

Russian scientists have been able to produce interferon by using this technology with the help of e-coli bacteria. With the help of this technology, interferon is now being produced commercially and its price is lower than the past. Alexander Fleming when in 1929 invented antibiotic named penicillin, its productivity was quite low. But through this technology, its production has quite gone up. Each cell in human body carries upto 100000 cells. If error is found in any of these cells, disease can attack human body. So far 3500 such disorders in human body have been known. It is hoped that these disorders will be removed through this technology. Besides, identification of viral diseases, cancer detection, production of antibiotic and vaccine are being done through this Russian scientists have been able to produce interferon by using this technology with the help of e-coli bacteria. With the help of this technology, interferon is now being produced commercially and its price is lower than the past. Alexander Fleming when in 1929 invented antibiotic named penicillin, its productivity was quite low. But through this technology, its production has quite gone up. Each cell in human body carries upto 100000 cells. If error is found in any of these cells, disease can attack human body. So far 3500 such disorders in human body have been known. It is hoped that these disorders will be removed through this technology. Besides, identification of viral diseases, cancer detection, production of antibiotic and vaccine are being done through this

Russian scientists have been able to produce interferon by using this technology with the help of e-coli bacteria. With the help of this technology, interferon is now being produced commercially and its price is lower than the past. Alexander Fleming when in 1929 invented antibiotic named penicillin, its productivity was quite low. But through this technology, its production has quite gone up. Each cell in human body carries upto 100000 cells. If error is found in any of these cells, disease can attack human body. So far 3500 such disorders in human body have been known. It is hoped that these disorders will be removed through this technology. Besides, identification of viral diseases, cancer detection, production of antibiotic and vaccine are being done through this technology.
Some microbes improve the colour, flavour, nutrition of different crops through their effect on them. This technology is used for producing fermented foods in different industries. Besides there are certain microbes turn certain carbohydrates into alcohol through fermentation. By applying the knowledge of biotechnology, enzymes, extracted from microbes, are being used in different industries such as dairy industries, detergent industries and carbohydrate industries. For enhancing the quantity and quality of different medicines, this technology is applied. By using different microbes, energy is produced from biomass and 60% rich methane gas. Daily waste matters, industrial discharges are being degraded by microbes for the improvement of environment.

Rapid afforestation is done by producing large number of saplings of different plants through tissue culture. If bio diversity of any area is destroyed, it has a serious bad effect on the environment of that area. So biotechnology is being used for preservation of biodiversity. For example efforts are being made for rapid propagation of almost extinct plants through tissue culture in order to maintain ecological balance. Different microbes specially bacteria is being used for extracting different elements from the minerals.

For example different bacteria are being used for extracting copper and uranium. Some bacteria keep the environment free from pollution by degrading oil and hydrocarbon from the environment. At present for controlling different pests and insecticides, organic pest control system is being used instead of different chemicals. In organic pest control system different microbes are being used with the help of bio technology which plays an important role in preserving the environment.
For example efforts are being made for rapid propagation of almost extinct plants through tissue culture in order to maintain ecological balance. Different microbes specially bacteria is being used for extracting different elements from the minerals. For example different bacteria are being used for extracting copper and uranium. Some bacteria keep the environment free from pollution by degrading oil and hydrocarbon from the environment. At present for controlling different pests and insecticides, organic pest control system is being used instead of different chemicals. In organic pest control system different microbes are being used with the help of bio technology which plays an important role in preserving the environment.

For enhancing the quantity and quality of different medicines, this technology is applied. By using different microbes, energy is produced from biomass and 60% rich methane gas. Daily waste matters, industrial discharges are being degraded by microbes for the improvement of environment. Rapid afforestation is done by producing large number of saplings of different plants through tissue culture. If bio diversity of any area is destroyed, it has a serious bad effect on the environment of that area.

So biotechnology is being used for preservation of biodiversity. For example efforts are being made for rapid propagation of almost extinct plants through tissue culture in order to maintain ecological balance. Different microbes specially bacteria is being used for extracting different elements from the minerals. For example different bacteria are being used for extracting copper and uranium. Some bacteria keep the environment free from pollution by degrading oil and hydrocarbon from the environment. At present for controlling different pests and insecticides, organic pest control system is being used instead of different chemicals. In organic pest control system different microbes are being used with the help of bio technology which plays an important role in preserving the environment.
So biotechnology is being used for preservation of biodiversity. For example efforts are being made for rapid propagation of almost extinct plants through tissue culture in order to maintain ecological balance. Different microbes specially bacteria is being used for extracting different elements from the minerals. For example different bacteria are being used for extracting copper and uranium. Some bacteria keep the environment free from pollution by degrading oil and hydrocarbon from the environment. At present for controlling different pests and insecticides, organic pest control system is being used instead of different chemicals. In organic pest control system different microbes are being used with the help of bio technology which plays an important role in preserving the environment.
For example efforts are being made for rapid propagation of almost extinct plants through tissue culture in order to maintain ecological balance. Different microbes specially bacteria is being used for extracting different elements from the minerals. For example different bacteria are being used for extracting copper and uranium. Some bacteria keep the environment free from pollution by degrading oil and hydrocarbon from the environment. At present for controlling different pests and insecticides, organic pest control system is being used instead of different chemicals. In organic pest control system different microbes are being used with the help of bio technology which plays an important role in preserving the environment.

Tissue culture: Generally, one or a group of cells of the same type is called tissue. The process of growing a tissue on a nourishing and sterilized medium is tissue culture. Tissue culture is comparatively a new branch of botany. In plant tissue culture, any separate part or part of a part like pollen, apical or lateral bud, node, root is cultured on or in any nourishing and sterilized medium. All the elements for the nutrition and growth of tissue are supplied with the sterilized medium. The part of a plant, being separate with the view of using it in tissue culture, is called ‘explants’. Steps of tissue culture

1. Selection of mother plant:


The healthy, disease resistant plant with high quality is selected for plant tissue culture. 196 Biology

2. Preparation of culture medium:


For the growth of the plant culture, culture media are made by mixing proper amount of essential mineral nutrients, vitamins, phytohormones, sucrose and condensing substance agar to bring the medium to a semisolid state.

3. Establishment of sterilized medium:


Taking the culture medium in a glass container (test tube, conical flask), its opening is usually closed with a cotton plaque. Later in an autoclave machine, keeping it at the temperature of 1210C under 15-lb/sq.-inch pressure for 20 minutes, the medium is sterilized. After the turning of the medium into a cold and semi-solid state, explants are inoculated on it. Then again after closing the mouth or opening the glass container, it is kept in a room with the controlling of light and temperature (25+20 C) for the growth of the explants. In this stage, the tissue placed on the medium through repeated cell division turns directly into a plantlet or callus or a cluster of cells without differentiation.

4. Transfer in root developing medium:


If no root is developed in the plantlets by this time, then after attaining a definite height, shoots are cut and again placed in the root developing medium.

5. Transfer to natural environment or to field level:


After washing with water and putting them outside the room on the tubs, the plantlets are allowed to adapt with the external environment. When the grown up plantlets become fresh and strong, they are once planted in soil in natural environment. Use of tissue culture: By utilizing the tissue culture, now a days in the reproduction of plants and in field of developing new variety, much achievement has been obtained and new horizons have evolved with the vast hopes. From the plant part in a short period of time, innumerable plantlets can be produced with the same characters.

Easily disease free and especially free from viruses, plantlets can be produced. It can be free from the limitation of producing plantlets in the specific season. As the facility of producing plantlets in a short period of time in a very conspicuous place, sufficient number of plantlets can be produced and the problem of storing of seeds can be avoided. The attainment of plantlets of those plants which do not reproduce by seeds and they can be speedily transferred in a short period of time in fresh condition.

Tissue culture technology is well accredited for the production and conservation of the species about to be extinct. The plants, which do not produce endosperm, can be developed directly by culturing their embryo. The rapid multiplication of the plants, which do not reproduce through sexual reproduction or of which rate of natural reproduction is low, can be done by culturing their embryo. Tissue culture technology is being used for the development of the plants of new characters.

French scientist George Morel (1964) proved that it is possible to obtain 40 thousand plantlets from a meristem of the orchid plant named Cymbidium in a year. In natural way, only a limited number of Cymbidium plantlets are produced in a year. In Thailand 50 million plantlets, which are mostly orchids, are produced through tissue culture method in a year. By exporting flowers, the countries like Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia etc. earn every year crores of foreign currency.

In 1952 the scientist named Martin obtained disease free Dalia and Potato plant by culturing meristems of them. Nowadays, it has become a regular practice to make some plants free from viral diseases by culturing their meristems, such as potato tubers. In Malaysia the reproduction of palm oil is done through tissue culture. It is possible to Biology 197 obtain 88 crores of plantlets of Garland of Chrysanthemum from a vegetative part of it through tissue culture. By the hybridization in between different species and varieties of Iris, it has become possible to grow more plantlets of it in a year instead of 2/3 years. Commercially the perfume atar is being produced from the suspension of Jasminum using this technology in many different countries. For the operation of

For the operation of heavy engine such as airplane, rocket etc. a kind of oil from sperm whale is required. This sperm whale is gradually becoming extinct. In an alternative way, this oil is being derived only from a plant named jojoba but this plant does not grow anywhere except in a special desert environment (such as, in Arizona, California), and their reproduction is also time consuming. Through tissue culture, not only the reproduction of this plant has become possible but also it has been changed to a level to adapt to the climate of India. In Bangladesh by this time much more successes have been made through tissue culture, such as it has become possible to produce the plantlets of different orchids grown in the country and in other countries.

Disease resistant and high yielding plantlets of banana, wood apple, jackfruit have been produced. Garland chrysanthemum, gladiolus, lily, garden carnation etc. flower producing plantlets also have been produced. Cadamba, Jarul, epil epil, bakul, teak, nim etc. timber producing plantlets have been produced. Plantlets of different types of pulses, groundnut, jute have also been produced. It has become possible to produce disease free plantlets and seed microtuber of potato applying tissue culture.

Genetic engineering With the view of changing the body of organism in quality by special technique of biotechnology, changing of gene particle in the centre of a cell is called genetic engineering. In other way it can be said, to develop new characters, changing in DNA of any organism is genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is also called recombinant DNA technology. With this technology, the transfer of the desired part of DNA from bacteria to human being, from plant to animal and from animal to plant have become possible. The organism with the new characters is called GMO (genetically modified organism) or GE (genetically engineered) or transgenic.

Stages of the preparation of DNA or GMO
(a) Selection of targetted DNA.
(b) Selection of a carrier so that the transfer of desired segment of DNA becomes possible.
(c) Selection of necessary restriction enzyme (special type of enzyme to cut DNA) to chop the DNA molecule at a particular locus.
(d) Selection of DNA ligase enzyme to join the segments of DNA chopped.
(e) Selection of a host for the replication of the carrier DNA with the segment of desired DNA.
(f) Evaluation of the expression of recombinant DNA prepared with the desired DNA segment.

This technology is being more significantly used by related innovators or investors because in a short period of time very accurately desired characteristic can be transferred by transferring gene through the process of modern biotechnology or genetic engineering.
Genetic engineering is more effective for the development of new crops in comparison with traditional ways of reproduction because transfer of gene is similar or limited to the nearest species through traditional reproduction.

But it is possible to transfer directly one or more genes to nearer or distant species through genetic engineering. Moreover, it requires long time to achieve the desired result through traditional way of reproduction. It is possible to obtain plants or animals or microorganisms with desired characteristics in a very short period of time. In case of traditional reproduction, unexpected genes may be transferred with the desired gene and the transfer of desired gene also remains uncertain. In genetic engineering, there is no possibility of transferring unexpected gene and the transfer of

In genetic engineering, there is no possibility of transferring unexpected gene and the transfer of desired gene is certain. Traditional reproduction is not controlled by any rules and methods of bio-safety, but in case of genetic engineering it is controlled by internationally accredited rules and methods of bio-safety. Toxicity is not tested in traditional reproduction but test of toxicity is done in genetic engineering. Genetic engineering in developing crops: Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology is the most modern biotechnology. The main objective of the technology is to develop organisms with new and advanced characters and by which human beings can be benefited surpassingly. By this time notable successes have already been achieved through this technology.

Toxicity is not tested in traditional reproduction but test of toxicity is done in genetic engineering. Genetic engineering in developing crops: Genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology is the most modern biotechnology. The main objective of the technology is to develop organisms with new and advanced characters and by which human beings can be benefited surpassingly. By this time notable successes have already been achieved through this technology.

Harmful insects resistant varieties of crops have been developed, such as Bt corn, Bt cotton, Bt rice (developed in China) etc. These fruits are resistant to the harmful insects under Lepidoptera and Coleoptera orders. For the insertion of bacterial genes named Bacillus thuringiansis into the crops, these genetically modified crops are designated as Bt corn. Using this technology, virus resistant varieties of crop have been developed, for instance

by transferring gene, tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and tobacco mild green virus (TMGMV) resistant varieties of crop have been developed. The variety of papaya resistant to ring spot virus (PRSV) has also been developed.

The research is being carried out for the development of late blight resistant variety of potato by transferring late blight fungus resistant gene. Varieties of corn and cotton tolerant to herbicides have been produced by genetic modification. Scientists have become able to develop herbicides tolerant variety of tomato by transferring herbicides tolerant genes into the tomato from a kind of bacteria. This way herbicides tolerant varieties of soybean, corn, cotton, canola etc. have been produced.
The variety of papaya resistant to ring spot virus (PRSV) has also been developed. The research is being carried out for the development of late blight resistant variety of potato by transferring late blight fungus resistant gene. Varieties of corn and cotton tolerant to herbicides have been produced by genetic modification. Scientists have become able to develop herbicides tolerant variety of tomato by transferring herbicides tolerant genes into the tomato from a kind of bacteria. This way herbicides tolerant varieties of soybean, corn, cotton, canola etc. have been produced.

Through genetic engineering more than one trait can be inserted in the same plant. Nowadays, with no trouble this type of transgenic plants is commercially available. For instance, side by side both herbicides tolerant and insect resistant characters have been inserted in corn and cotton. Through genetic change, nutrition value of some crops has been improved. For example, vitamin i.e. beta-carotene gene has been transferred into rice. Taking efforts to add iron in rice is being continued. The attempts are also being made to develop salinity and drought resistant varieties of different crops through genetic modification.

In animals: In livestock, for example transfer of protein C gene has been done to increase protein in cow-milk though still it is in research level. Through genetic modification, genetic changes have been accomplished with the sheep by transferring the growth hormone producing gene from human being to it with the view of increasing its size and meat production. To improve the amount and quality of sheep’s fur, 2 bacterial genes, such as CysE and CysM have been transferred to the genome of sheep.

In healthcare: Hepatitis b-virus vaccine is being produced from yeast through genetic modification. From genetically modified E.coli bacteria and yeast, insulin is being commercially produced for the treatment of the diabetes disease by using the gene, which produces insulin in human body. Human growth hormone and components of the stimulant for accelerated growth of granulocytes macrophage colony are being produced from
genetically modified E.coli bacteria and yeast, and these are respectively being used for dwarfism, viral disease, cancer, AIDS etc.

In improvement of fishing: The areas of petroleum industry and refinery and coal mining are free from pollution because this technology is being used with a view to making the environmental management easy and fast, such as management of industrial wastes and sewage. Dr. M.K. Chakraborty, by performing research on genetic engineering, has developed a variety of Pseudomonas bacteria which is able to disintegrate immediately oil and hydrocarbon in any environment.

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