Components of sentence

Components of sentence

Parts of Sentence

(বাক্যের অংশ)


Look at the following sentences (নিচের বাক্য গুলি দেখ):
1.    A boy lived in a village.
2.    His brother sent him to school.

* In the above sentences beginning of a sentence are indicated by a capital letter.
* The end of the sentences is indicated by a full stop or of exclamation or interrogation.
1.      নং বাক্যটিতে ‘A boy’  কে উদ্দেশ্য করে বলা হয়েছে  ‘lived in a village.’
2.     নং বাক্যটিতে ‘His brother’ কে উদ্দেশ্য করে বলা হয়েছে   ‘sent him to school.’


*    উপরের ২টি sentence বিশ্লেষণ করলে ২টি অংশ পাওয়া যাচ্ছে।

১.       কারও উদ্দেশ্য করে বলা।
২.       যা কিছু বলা।


* এই ২টি Sentence এর ২টি অংশের  ২টি নাম আছে।

১.       যাকে উদ্দেশ্য করে বলা হয়, তার নাম Subject.
২.      যা কিছু বলা হয, তার নাম  Predicate.

Subject - D‡Ïk¨

 What is subject?

    তাহলে আমারা বলতে পারি যে  কোন    sentence এ যে ব্যক্তি, বস্তু বা প্রাণীকে উদ্দেশ্য করে কিছু বলা হয় সেই ব্যক্তি, বস্তু বা প্রাণীকে Subject বলে। অর্থাৎ যা উদ্দেশ্য করে কিছু বলা বলা হয় তাকে    Subject বলে।"

    The subject is a person or a thing about whome or which something is said  ( কোন   sentence  এ যে বস্তু, ব্যক্তি বা প্রাণীকে সম্পর্কে কোন কিছু বলা হয় তাকে sentence এর   Subject  বলে)।



 Example:
Mithun is a good boy.

* Commet: এই বাক্যে Mithun (মিঠুনের) সম্পর্কে বলা হয়েছে সে একটি ভাল ছেলে। তাই এই বাক্যের Subject ‘Mithun  মিঠুন।

 
Predicate- বিধেয়

What is predicate?

Subject সম্পর্কে যা কিছু বলা হয় তাকে  Predicate বলে।
What is said about the Subject is called Predicate.  (কোন sentence এ Subject সম্পর্কে যা কিছু বলা হয় তাকে Predicate বলে)।

 Example:  Mithun is a good boy. 
  
* Commet:
এই বাক্যে মিঠুনের সম্পর্কে বলা হয়েছে ‘সে একটি ভাল ছেলে।’ তাই 
(Mithun)  (মিঠুন)  Subject এবং  (is a good boy) Òসে একঠি ভাল ছেলে)Ó Predicate.

* সাধারণত বাক্যের প্রথমে Subject এবং পরে  Predicate বসে। নিচের বাক্যগুলো লক্ষ কর:
He                                       never
stood second in the class.
     His parents                        sent him to school.



 Subject                                 Predicate
সাধারণত বাক্যের প্রথমে Subject এবং পরে  Predicate  বসলেও কখনও কখনও বাক্যের কোন বিশেষ অংশকে জোর দেওয়ার জন্যে  Subject এর আগে সমগ্র   Predicate  বা  Predicate এর অংশ বিশেষ বসে। অর্থাৎ  Subject মাঝে বা শেষে বসতে পারে।





‡hgb:




Silver and gold have               I                      none.  (সোনা রুপা আমার কিছুই নেই)
Predicate                             Subject               Predicate

Sweet are the
uses of adversity. (প্রতিকুল অবস্থার সদব্যবহার কি মধুরই না হয় ।)

NB = আদেশ, উপদেশ এবং অনুরোধ মুলক বাক্যে সর্বদায়  Subject উহ্য থাকে ।

Example: 1. Read
attentively.
              2. Please, shut the door.

Components of sentence



Components of sentence at a glance
Elaborate Discussion or highly
details  (বিস্তারিত আলোচনা )


Subject word and Adjunct to Subject
নিচের বাক্যটি পড়  (Read the following sentence)
1.    A boy lived in a village.
2.   His brother sent him to school.

NB = In sentence 1 ‘boy’ and In sentence 2 ‘brother’ is Subject proper or Subject word. And
In sentence 1 ‘A’ and In sentence 2 ‘His’ is the extra part of Subject. Those are called Adjunct to Subject.

Adjunct = এমন কোন বস্তু যা অতিরিক্ত হলেও অধীন/বাক্যাস্তিত অন্য শব্দকে গুনান্বিত বা সংজ্ঞায়িত করার যুক্ত শব্দ বা বাক্যাংশ/সমপ্রসারক ।


(grammar)
an adverb or a phrase that adds meaning to
the verb in a sentence or part of a sentence:

In ‘She went home yesterday’ and ‘He ran away in a panic’,
‘yesterday’ and ‘in a panic’ are adjuncts. 
2(formal) a
thing that is added or attached to sth larger or more important:

The memory expansion cards are useful adjuncts to the computer.

* Adjunct to subject : Subject  এর বাড়তি বা অতিরিক্ত অংশকে 
Adjunct to subject বলে ।
 




* Subject word/subject proper:   মুল  subject গুলিকে subject word বা  subject
proper
 
বলে । 

NB: বাক্যের ক্রিয়াকে ’কে’ দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে যে উত্তর পাওয়া যায় তাই subject বা কর্ম ।

More about the predicate
***predicate গঠিত হয় ‘verb, object, complement, adjective to, object-adverbial’ দ্বারা  verb, adjective to, object-adverbial’ G¸‡jv Parts of speech এ দেখ।

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